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Httpwatch Professional License 62

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In the first Japanese title matches for professional boxers held in April 1924, Fuji Okamoto in the flyweight division and Kintarō Usuda in the lightweight division became titleholders.[4] There was no clear distinction between amateur and professional around that time.[9]

Then the Japan Boxing Commission (JBC), virtually the only governing body of Japan's professional boxing, was founded in order to prepare Yoshio Shirai's world title match. Its establishment was presented at the Tokyo Kaikan on April 21, 1952. Munehide Tanabe (田邊 宗英, often written as 田辺 宗英) from Waseda University who was the founding president of Teiken Boxing Gym and the president of the Korakuen Stadium, was elected as its first commissioner.[12][15]

From 2011 through 2012, the middleweight boxers had record-breaking performances both in amateur and professional boxing. Nobuhiro Ishida knocked out the previously undefeated James Kirkland at the MGM Grand Las Vegas to be awarded The Ring Upset of the Year.[26] Ryōta Murata secured the silver medal in the World Amateur Boxing Championships in Baku, Azerbaijan to qualify for the 2012 Summer Olympics.[27] Tadashi Yuba won his fifth Japanese title in four different weight divisions to be a quadruple champion.[28] All those are the first records for Japan. In August 2013, Yuba picked up the Japanese super welterweight title to be a quintuple champion.[29]

In Japan, every professional boxer must contract with a manager under the JBC rules,[37] and is required to belong to a boxing gym which has exclusive management rights for boxers as a member of each regional subsidiary body of Japan Pro Boxing Association under the Japan's conventional gym system.[38] Two professional boxers belonging to the same gym have not been allowed to fight against each other unless one of them transfers to other gym, because it might disrupt the gym system.[39] However, it is often quite difficult for boxers to transfer between the gyms due to the matters on transfer fees, match fees and so on.[40]

As of Feb 2022, Japan produced 85 male world champions and 23 female world champions.[46] When Yōta Satō won the world title to be the twelfth world champion managed by Kyoei Boxing Gym in March 2012, Japan had had nine world champions at the same time including an "emeritus champion" and a "champion in recess".[47] Although nine boxers except non-Japanese nationals and females were crowned world champions across the sea,[48] it is in contrast to the status of boxing in the Philippines where 31 of 40 world champions won the title abroad as of April 2016.[49][50] Katsunari Takayama fighting out of the ALA Boxing Gym of Cebu City has won the IBF title in 2013,[51] after resigning his JBC license in 2009 in order to compete for the IBF or the WBO title outside Japan.[52]

Japan's male world champions rarely risk their titles outside of their country. Apart from non-Japanese nationals, the thirteen champions did it, and the only four among them successfully defended their titles.[53] That is because Japan's professional boxing has given priority to holding the fights in their own country to get paid television broadcast rights fees.[54] Consequently, Japan's champions still remain internationally unrecognized.[53] The broadcast rights fees have decreased under the economic downturn.[54]

From 1950 through 2011, Tokyo was the city with the most boxing fatalities in the world.[66] After the JBC's inception in April 1952, thirty-eight Japanese professional boxers died from fight injuries.[67] In 1973, one boxer among them died after an eighth-round knockout loss in a super featherweight ten-round bout in Agana, Guam.[68] He is the only Japanese who died outside of his home country.[69]

After the year 1952, five Japanese amateur boxers and two Thai professional boxers died due to a fight in Japan.[69][70] In addition, one Japanese amateur boxer died of cerebral hemorrhage after the test for a professional boxer's license,[74][75] and one Japanese professional boxer suffered a fatal cerebral hemorrhage during a sparring session.[70] The thirty-eighth victim under the JBC's professional regulations and rules, and the fifty-third in total, died of subdural hematoma seventeen days after his first professional bout against another debutant.[76]

Soccer in the United States is run by different organizations.[8] The United States Soccer Federation (USSF) governs most levels of soccer in the country, including the national teams, professional leagues, and amateur leagues, being the highest soccer authority in the country. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) governs most colleges; secondary schools are governed by state-level associations, with the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) setting the rules at that level.[8] The match regulations are generally the same between the three governing bodies although there are many subtle differences.[8]

The highest-level men's professional soccer league in the U.S. is Major League Soccer (MLS). The league's predecessor was the major professional North American Soccer League (NASL), which existed from 1968 until 1984.[12] MLS began to play in 1996 with 10 teams and has grown to 28 teams (25 in the United States and 3 in Canada), with further expansion planned to 30 teams. MLS is currently the largest first division professional football league in the world. The MLS season runs from February to November, with the regular-season winner awarded the Supporters' Shield and the post-season winner awarded the MLS Cup. With an average attendance of over 20,000 per game, MLS has the third-highest average attendance of any sports league in the U.S. after the National Football League (NFL) and Major League Baseball (MLB),[13] and is the seventh-highest attended professional soccer league worldwide.[14] MLS uses franchised clubs similar to other major U.S. sports leagues, rather than the promotion and relegation model used for club soccer in other countries such as the United Kingdom.

During the days of the American Soccer League, the league was seen as widely popular, and considered to be the second-most popular sports league in the United States, only behind Major League Baseball.[citation needed] However, the "soccer war" between the USFA and ASL, combined with the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, led to the demise of the ASL in 1933, and the demise of the professional sport in the United States; however, the sport continued in amateur and semi-professional leagues. The national soccer team competed in the first two FIFA World Cups, managing to qualify for the semifinals of the first tournament and qualifying for the following one in Italy, where the U.S. team was knocked out in the first match by would-be world champions Italy.

As part of the United States' bid to host the 1994 World Cup, U.S. Soccer pledged to create a professional outdoor league. Major League Soccer (MLS) launched in 1996, which helped develop American players in a way that was not possible without a domestic league. Many of these players competed in the 2002 FIFA World Cup, where the United States reached the quarterfinals, its best result in the modern era. The team qualified for seven consecutive World Cup tournaments between 1990 and 2014 before failing to qualify for the 2018 tournament, the first since 1986.

Women's soccer in the United States has been played at the professional level since 2001. Women's soccer has made a significant impact all over the U.S. They have gotten support, rejection, and discrimination, and have battled for equal rights in a male-dominated soccer environment.[53]

As a result of the U.S. women's national team's (USWNT) first-place showing in the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, a seemingly viable market for the sport germinated.Feeding on the momentum of their victory, the eight-team league formed in February 2000, the U.S. Soccer Federation approved membership of the Women's United Soccer Association (WUSA) as a sanctioned Division 1 women's professional soccer league on August 18, 2000, and the league began playing its first season in April 2001. It would be the world's first women's soccer league in which all the players were paid as professionals.[citation needed]The WUSA had previously announced plans to begin to play in 2001 in eight cities across the country, including: Atlanta, the Bay Area, Boston, New York, Orlando, Philadelphia, San Diego and Washington, D.C. The WUSA forged ahead on a cooperation agreement that would see the new league work side by side with Major League Soccer to help maximize the market presence and success of both Division I leagues.[54]The eight teams included the Atlanta Beat, Boston Breakers, Carolina Courage, New York Power, Philadelphia Charge, San Diego Spirit, San Jose CyberRays (called Bay Area CyberRays for 2001 season), and the Washington Freedom.

After the folding of WUSA, WUSA Reorganization Committee was formed in September 2003 that led to the founding of Women's Soccer Initiative, Inc. (WSII), whose stated goal was "promoting and supporting all aspects of women's soccer in the United States", including the founding of a new professional league.[56] Initial plans were to play a scaled-down version of WUSA in 2004. However, these plans fell through and instead, in June 2004, the WUSA held two "WUSA Festivals" in Los Angeles and Blaine, Minnesota, featuring matches between reconstituted WUSA teams in order to maintain the league in the public eye and sustain interest in women's professional soccer.[57] A planned full relaunch in 2005 also fell through. In June 2006, WSII announced the relaunch of the league for the 2008 season.[58]


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